Emergence of Economic, Social and Political Ideas
The new ideas that shaped our modern world are the influence of democracy, republicanism, nationalism and liberalism. Democracy is a form of government in which the citizen elects a representative to create laws on their behalf. Republicanism is a form of government in which the head of the state is the citizen of that nation rather than a monarch. A monarch is someone like a king, queen or an emperor. Nationalism is the belief that people of a similar race, culture or ideas ought to belong to the same nation state and liberalism was a movement aimed at protecting and improving the rights of individuals. Age of Revolution American Revolution The American Revolution was a political upheaval, 1765–1783, as the Thirteen American Colonies broke from the British Empire and formed an independent nation, the United States of America. Starting in 1765 the Americans rejected the authority of Parliament to tax them without elected representation. In 1774 the Patriots suppressed the Loyalists and expelled all royal officials. Each colony now had a new government that took control. The British responded by sending combat troops to re-establish royal control. Through the Second Continental Congress, the Patriots fought the British in the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783. In early 1778, after an invading army from Canada was captured by the Americans, the French entered the war as allies of the United States. The naval and military power of the two sides was about equal, and France had allies in the Netherlands and Spain, while Britain had no major allies in this large-scale war. The war turned to the South, where the British captured an American army at South Carolina, but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilian to take effective control. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. A peace treaty in 1783 confirmed the new nations complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida. The American Revolution was the result of a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations in American society, government and ways of thinking and gained independence. French Revolution
The French revolution was from 1780 to 1799. It brought an end to the medieval feudal system of land ownership ain France and eventually Europe but not everyone agreed with this. After the execution of King Louis XVI in 1793, opponents sought to crush it with the help of foreign armies (period known as Reign Of Terror). In the autumn of 1793, Robespierre and the Jacobins focused on addressing economic and political threats within France. What began as a proactive approach to reclaiming the nation quickly turned bloody as the government instituted its infamous campaign against internal opposition known as the Reign of Terror. Beginning in September, Robespierre, under the auspices of the Committee of Public Safety, began pointing an accusing finger at anyone whose beliefs seemed to be counterrevolutionary—citizens who had committed no crime but merely had social or political agendas that varied too much from Robespierre’s. The committee targeted even those who shared many Jacobin views but were perceived as just slightly too radical or conservative. During the nine-month period that followed, anywhere from 15,000 to 50,000 French citizens were beheaded at the guillotine. Even long-time associates of Robespierre such as Georges Danton, who had helped orchestrate the Jacobin rise to power, fell victim to the paranoia. When Danton wavered in his conviction, questioned...
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