Cloud Point and Pour Point Determination

Topics: Petroleum, Temperature, Diesel fuel Pages: 5 (1442 words) Published: June 11, 2013
ABSTRACT/ SUMMARY
After preliminary heating, the sample is cooled at a specified rate and examined at intervals of 1°C for flow characteristics. The lowest temperature at which movement of the specimen is observed is recorded as the pour point.

INTRODUCTION
In the cloud point experiment, waxes will appear and thickens the oil and clogs fuel filter and injectors in engines. The wax also accumulates on the cold surfaces and forms an emulsion with water. The appearances of cloud point determine the first cloud of wax crystals in a liquid when it is cooled. Whereas,  pour point experiment is to determine the minimum temperature of the oil which will continue flow when it is cooled. It is an indication which the oil is readily pumped able.

OBJECTIVE
To determine of a fluidity of residual fuel oil at a specified temperature in an as received condition, this is to determine the cloud point and pour point for crude oil and biodiesel.

THEORY
* Cloud point : -
Cloud point is the temperature at which a cloud of wax crystals first appears in a liquid when it is cooled under specified condition. In this experiment the cloud point is refer to the temperature below which wax in the crude oil and biodiesel form a cloud appearance. Due to presence of solidified waxes, the oil thickened and clogs fuel filters and the injectors in engines. The wax also accumulates on cold surfaces and forms an emulsion with water. Therefore the cloud point indicates the tendency of the oil to plug filters or small orifices at cold operating temperatures. * Pour point :-

Pour point is the lowest temperature at which a sample of petroleum product will continue flow when it is cooled under specified standard conditions it is a rough indication of the lowest temperature at which oil is readily pump able. Also the pour point can be defined as the minimum temperature of the liquid, particularly a lubricant after which, on decreasing the temperature, the liquid ceases to flow.

Apparatus/ Materials :
Crude oil, biodiesel, cork, thermometer, gasket, Flat-bottomed test jar and disc.

Procedure
To determine Cloud Point and Pour Point:
1)      The crude oil is poured at approximately half full of the test jar. 2)      The cork carrying thermometer is placed on top of the glass jar. Make sure that it fits perfectly and the thermometer bulb is adjusted so that it immersed slightly below the crude oil level. 3)      The disc is placed inside the cooling bath, and the gasket is placed around the test jar. Never place the jar directly into the cooling medium. 4)      At every decrease of temperature of 1ᵒCelsius, the test jar is taken out and being checked if there is cloud present. Then the test jar is quickly placed back into the position. 5)      The reading of the thermometer is recorded when the cloud starts to form. 6)      Then the experiment is continued for pour point of the sample. 7)      At every decrease of 1ᵒCelsius, the jar is removed and tilted to see any surface movement of the oil. 8)      When the oil being tilted and it did not move, the oil is positioned in a horizontal position for 5 seconds. 9)      The temperature at which it froze is recorded. That determined the pour point. 10)   Then the experiment is repeated using biodiesel.

 

 
Results
Crude Oil A and Crude Oil B
Temperature (ᵒ C )| Time (min)| ObservationCrude Oil A| Time (min)| ObservationCrude Oil B| 25| 0.00| None| 0.00| None|
24| 2.40| None| 2.40| None|
23| 3.45| None| 3.45| None|
22| 4.27| None| 5.30| None|
21| 5.12| Slightly cloud appear| 7.35| Slightly appear| 20| 8.23| Cloud appears(Cloud Point)| 9.32| Slightly appears| 19| 10.13| Cloud appears| 12.19| Slightly appears|
18| 12.05| Cloud appears| 14.45| Cloud appears(Cloud Point)| 17| 13.46| Cloud appears| 16.00| Cloud appears|
16| 15.38| Crystal Wax starts to form| 17.45| Crystal wax starts to form| 15| 16.55| Wax starts to...
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Kalypso Media | 04.12.1800:26 Uhr Todesursache - Magie 1.02 x264 0 / 0183 Hits VID P2P DDL 0 Kommentare | Brad Lowell Stone