DETERMINATION OF REFRACTIVE INDEX OF CR

Topics: Refractive index, Petroleum, Optics Pages: 13 (2346 words) Published: November 26, 2014
university of ibADAN DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DETERMINATION OF REFRACTIVE INDEX OF CRUDE OIL

TPE 527 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LAB. 111

NUESIRI ESEOGHENE ANITA 151419
11/21/2014

LABORATORY REPORT SUBMITTED TO DR.S.O ISEHUNWA

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
Faculty of Technology,
University of Ibadan,
Ibadan.
20th November, 2014
The head of department,
Department Of Petroleum Engineering,
University of Ibadan
Ibadan
Dear Sir,
LETTER OF SUBMISSION OF LABORATORY REPORT
I, NUESIRI ESEOGHENE, a 500 level student of Petroleum Engineering with matriculation number 151419, hereby submit my weekly laboratory report on the experiment carried out on the 19th of November 2014. This is in partial fulfilment of the course requirement for TPE 526-Petroleum laboratory III. Thank you for the opportunity to gain invaluable experience that will definitely prove useful in the nearest future. Yours faithfully,

NUESIRI ESEOGHENE A
151419
500 level
Petroleum Engineering

TABLE OF CONTENT
1. Letter of submission……………………………………………….1 2. Title page…………………………………………………………..3 3. Introduction…………………………………………………………4 4. Theory of experiment……………………………………………….6 5. Methodology/procedure…………………………………………….8 6. Result and discussion

Results………………………………………………………9 Observation………………………………………………….9 Precaution……………………………………………………10 Application to the petroleum industry………………………11 7. Conclusion…………………………………………………………...12 8. References…………………………………………………………….12

EXPERIMENT 1
DETERMINATION OF REFRACTIVE INDEX OF LIQUID SAMPLES (CRUDE OIL AND BRINE) DATE: 19TH NOVEMBER 2014
AIM: To determine the refractive index of a given liquid sample using a handheld refractometer. APPARATUS:
traditional handheld refractometer
Liquid samples: Distil water
Sample A- brine
Sample B- crude oil

DIAGRAM:

FIGURE (1A) schematic of a refractometer (1B) A typical handheld refractometer

INTRODUCTION
Refractive index is an important property of liquids to signify purity. The refractive index or index of refraction n of a substance (optical medium) is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through that medium. It is defined as ……………………………..(1)

where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the speed of light in the substance. Refractive index (n), also known as the Index of Refraction, can be defined as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a material. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.33, meaning that light travels 1.33 times slower in water than it does in vacuum. In other words, when a light beam passes form one substance (air) to another (a liquid), it is bent or refracted because of the difference in speed between the two substances. The refraction index indicates the degree of this refraction. Additional, refractive index is measures as the sine of the angle of bending (deflection) of light as it passes from one medium to another.

Refractive index is a property of optical materials that determines how fast light travels through it. The numerical n value indicates the light bending power of a medium such as a chemical. The greater the bending power, the greater the refractive index. In a medium, the speed of light depends on the wavelength and temperature. For this reason refractive index is usually measured and reported at 20° C. with the D line sodium light. The refractive index is a thermodynamic property and is a state function, which for a pure fluid depends on temperature and pressure. Since the velocity of light in a fluid is less than the velocity of light in a vacuum, its value of a fluid is greater than unity. Liquids have higher values...
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