euro notes

Topics: Liberalism, Romanticism, Germany Pages: 69 (8977 words) Published: February 24, 2014
AP European History: Unit 7.1

Ideologies and Revolutions: 1815-1850
“The Age of Metternich”
Politics in the “Long 19th Century”: 1789-1914
French Rev &
• Nat’l
• Legislative
• Nat’l
• Directory
• Consulate
• Empire

“Age of
• Congress of
• Concert of
• Revolutions of
1830 and
• Reforms in
• Liberalism/
• Romanticism

“Age of
• Second
• Crimean War
• Unification of
• Unification of
• Ausgleich:

“Age of Mass
• French Third
• German
• Imperialism
• Rise of
• Increased
suffrage =
mass politics

I. Overview
A. Conservatism and the “Age of Metternich”
1. The Congress of Vienna (1815) represented a
temporary triumph for the old conservative order
• This era of conservatism was best represented by
the leadership and policies of Austrian minister
Klemens von Metternich
2. Napoleon was defeated and former rulers were
restored to power (e.g. Bourbons in France and the
pope in the Papal States)
3. The victors at the Congress of Vienna sought to
prevent the new forces of liberalism and nationalism
from disturbing the conservative order
• Repression was used in a number of instances to
put down liberal or nationalist challenges
4. The Concert of Europe was the clearest and most
effective expression of conservatism.

Use space below for
notes AP Euro Lecture Notes
Unit 7.1: Ideologies and Revolutions (1815-1850)

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B. Rise of Liberalism
1. The liberalism unleashed by the French Revolution
was largely kept in check during the years
immediately following the Congress of Vienna.
2. Liberalism became a major force in France during the
Revolutions of 1830 and 1848.
a. The Bourbons were overthrown in 1830 and
replaced with Louis Philippe (the “Bourgeois King”)
b. France became a republic in 1848 (although only
for 4 years)
3. Liberalism resulted in a number of important reforms
in Britain by 1850 (e.g. Reform Bill of 1832 and
repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846)
C. Emergence of Nationalism
1. Nationalism became perhaps the greatest force for
revolution in the period between 1815 and 1850.
2. Italy revolted against Austrian rule in 1830 and 1848
3. A revolution in Prussia in 1848 resulted in a failed
attempt to unify Germany
4. The Austrian empire saw nationalist revolts by
Hungarians and Bohemians
5. Greece gained its independence from the Ottoman
Empire in 1832.
6. Belgium won its independence from the Netherlands
in 1830
7. Poland failed in its attempt to gain independence in
8. Britain and Russia were spared nationalist revolutions
D. Romanticism
1. Philosophy challenged the rationalism of the
emotion, faith and nature
2. Romanticism became politically linked to liberalism
and nationalism
E. Socialism
1. Challenged the bourgeoisie for its maltreatment of
workers during the Industrial Revolution
2. Advocated a new social and economic order based on

© 2008 All Rights Reserved AP Euro Lecture Notes
Unit 7.1: Ideologies and Revolutions (1815-1850)

Page 3

Use space below for
II. Congress of Vienna (September 1814-June 1815)
(Note: much of this section is a repeat of material at the notes: end of Unit 5.2)
A. Representatives of major powers of Europe, including
France, met to redraw territorial lines and to try and
restore the social and political order of the Old Regime.
B. The “Big Four”: Austria, England, Prussia, and Russia 1. Klemens Von Metternich represented Austria.
a. Epitomized conservative...

Bibliography: Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006
Merriman, John, A History of Modern Europe: From the Renaissance to the Present, 2nd ed.,
New York: W. W. Norton, 2004
Palmer, R
Chambers, Mortimer, et al, The Western Experience, 8th ed., Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003
Hunt, Lynn, et al, The Making of the West: People’s and Cultures, Boston: Bedford/St
Hall, 2001
Kishlansky, Mark, et al, Civilization in the West, 5th ed., New York: Longman, 2003
Mercado, Steven and Young, Jessica, AP European History Teacher’s Guide, New York:
College Board, 2007
Spielvogel, Jackson, Western Civilization, 5th ed., Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thompson
Learning, 2003
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