History of Ideas

Topics: Liberalism, The End of History and the Last Man, Democracy Pages: 11 (3410 words) Published: December 26, 2012


We have taken efforts in writing this report. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

We are highly indebted to Mr. Asad Shahzad for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the report & also for his support in completing the report.

We would like to express my gratitude towards our parents for their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped us in completion of this report.

Our thanks and appreciations also go to our friends who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.



Introduction page 3 Summary page 4 Highlights page 6 Arguments in favor page 7 Critiques page 8


Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama was born on October 27, 1952. He is an American political economist author and political scientist. Fukuyama is best acknowledged for his book titled The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which debated that the universal spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may indicate the end point of humankind's sociocultural development and become the ultimate form of human government system. However, his following book Trust: Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (1995) altered his former position to admit that culture cannot be easily separated from economics. Fukuyama is also linked with the escalation of the neoconservative movement from which he has since distanced himself. Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law at Stanford University. Previously he worked as a lecturer and director of the International Development program at the School of Advanced International Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. Fukuyama graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in classics from Cornell University where he studied political philosophy under Allan Bloom. He originally pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at Yale University, travelling to Paris for six months to study under Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida, but became disheartened and transferred to political science at Harvard University. There he studied with Samuel P. Huntington and Harvey Mansfield. He got his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard for his notion on Soviet threats to arbitrate in the Middle East. In 1979 he joined the international policy think tank named RAND Corporation. Since his undergraduate years at Cornell Fukuyama has been associated with the Telluride Association, an educational enterprise that was home to other noteworthy leaders and scholars, including Kathleen Sullivan, Steven Weinberg and Paul Wolfowitz .

“End of History and the last man”
Francis Fukuyama’s article “The End of History?” printed in 1989 elevated a new argument in the world history which was commended but at the same stage faced a lot of criticism as well. In his article, Fukuyama claimed that liberalism undeniably was the best ideology and it was the final means to achieve world peace. According to Fukuyama, countries should be en route for liberal democracy if they want nonviolent relations with other countries. The End of History?” concerns the growth and fall of main beliefs such as absolutism, fascism and communism, and proposes that human history should be observed in terms of a clash of...
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