Course : EV02
In the world, the energy resources are not equally distributed across the earth. For example, the Middle East owns 48,4% of the world’s oil reserves. There are big differences between the countries in this area. So in this report, we will study two countries from Middle East: Qatar and Iraq.
These two nations are directly opposed, first by Human Development report. In fact, Qatar is considered as a very high human developed country, it is ranked at the 36 th place on a list of 186 countries. Contrariwise, Iraq is considered as a medium human developed country, ranked 131th. What can explain this difference?
Qatar is a recent country which has known a very quick expansion. Iraq just got out from war and has to be rebuilt. First of all the situation of Qatar will be explained, then Iraq and finally the comparison between the countries.
Qatar is a small country located in the Middle East, on the Arabian Peninsula. As of 2012, the population is small (2.051 million according to World Bank). The UN Human Development Report categorized it in the countries with a “Very high human development”. It’s not a coincidence since the discovery of the onshore Dukhan oil field in 1940. Until that year, the main activities were fishing and pearl hunting. Thanks to the discovery of these valuables resources, the whole country changed, not just the economy. For example, the lowest known life expectancy at birth was in 1960 (61.25 years old) and the highest one is in 2012 (78.45 years old). Of course, due to this discovery, Qatar joined OPEC, the international organization whose members are the petroleum exporting countries.
Talking about energy resources, let’s see the production and consumption of each energy available in this country. The data used below are from BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013.
Production and consumption of oil (Thousand barrels daily)
The values on the Y-axis should be multiplied by 1000 (Thousand barrels) and of course the values on the X-axis represents the years.
In 10 years, the production of oil significantly increased, reaching 1966 thousand barrels produced daily in 2012. By the way, the difference between the production and the consumption is higher in 2012 than in 2002: 719 thousand barrels (2002) against 1716 thousand barrels (2012).
This big difference can be explained by the fact that Qatar wants not to be dependent of its oil resources. So to avoid this situation, the government decided to diversify the economy. At the end of 2012, there were still 24 thousand million barrels of oil reserves.
2) Natural Gas
Production and consumption of natural gas (Billion cubic
Another resource of the country is natural gas. Qatar is a member of GECF (Gas Exporting Countries Forum). Like the oil production, natural gas production increased significantly reaching 145.3 billion cubic metres in 2012 whereas in 2002 it was only 29.5 billion cubic metres. The difference between both production and consumption is similar with the previous case: 18.4 billion cubic metres in 2002 while in 2012 it was 130.8 billion cubic metres.
Furthermore, according to EIA (US. Energy Information Administration), Qatar is the “world’s fourth dry natural gas producer behind the USA, Russia and Iran, and the world’s leading liquefied natural gas exporter since 2006”.
The comment made in the previous part also applied to this part: the difference between both curves above is the consequence of efforts made by the government to diversify the economy.
There was no information relating to the use of non-commercial energy sources. The country doesn't consume nuclear energy...
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