Petroleum Exploration

Topics: Petroleum, Hydrocarbon, Reflection seismology Pages: 1 (306 words) Published: November 27, 2012
Petroleum Exploration and Production consists of four major processes of exploration, well-development, production and site abandonment. In this assignment, we had chosen the major process of exploration and production. Petroleum Exploration is conducted to find and detect the site which contains oil or natural gas. Visible surface features such as oil seeps, natural gas seeps, pockmarks provide basic evidence of hydrocarbon generation. However, most exploration depends on highly sophisticated technology to detect and determine the extent of these deposits using exploration geophysics. Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a gravity survey, magnetic survey, passive seismic or regional seismic reflection surveys to detect large-scale features of the sub-surface geology. Features of interest are subjected to more detailed seismic surveys which work on the principle of the time it takes for reflected sound waves to travel through matter of varying densities and using the process of depth conversion to create a profile of the substructure. Finally, when a prospect has been identified and evaluated and passes the oil company's selection criteria, an exploration well is drilled in an attempt to conclusively determine the presence or absence of oil or gas.

On the other hand, after the process of exploration and well development, the thrid process will be the production of oil. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology at the reservoir scale, sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization mainly in terms of porosity and permeable structures. It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol or gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 88 million...
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