S H E L L N E D E R L A N D R A F F I N A D E R I J B . V.
Company / Shell Pernis is one of the Netherlands’ largest industrial complexes, located in the Rijnmond area in the Municipality of Rotterdam. Shell Pernis consists first and foremost of two independent operating companies of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group: Shell Nederland Raffinaderij B.V. (oil refining) and Shell Nederland Chemie B.V. (chemicals). Various other chemical companies formerly owned by Shell are also located on the site. These were divested to new owners at the end of the twentieth century. This brochure refers to the refinery as SNR, to the chemical operations as SNC and to the entire industrial complex comprising the Shell and third-party companies as Shell Pernis. An essential part of the refinery, although located some twenty kilometres from the plants, is the Shell Europoort terminal for the offloading, storage and transfer of crude oil and naphtha.
Many oil products leave Pernis by inland waterway.
The Royal Dutch/Shell Group has operating companies in around 140 countries, employs more than 110,000 people and is active in the fields of petroleum, (liquefied) natural gas, petrochemicals, electricity and sustainable energy. This makes it an energy company in the very broadest sense of the word. The Royal Dutch/Shell Group was formed in 1907 as the result of an alliance between Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and The Shell Transport and Trading Company Limited. The company is 60% Dutch-owned and 40% British-owned.
History An installation to process crude petroleum from Sumatra was built on Rotterdam’s Sluisjesdijk in 1902. The installation underwent vigorous expansion until it was dismantled in the 1930s. Shell had decided to build a new
refinery outside the city on a site alongside the First Petroleum Dock. Chemical operations commenced in 1949 when one plant was built to produce liquid synthetic detergent and another to produce PVC. The demand for chemical products continued to grow in the 1960s and 1970s. At the beginning of the 1970s a new location was constructed at Moerdijk, thirty-five kilometres southeast of Pernis, as there was no more room for the Pernis site to expand. Several pipelines interconnect the Moerdijk and Pernis sites. Oil tankers increased in size during the 1950s, which necessitated the development of a special terminal further west in the new Europoort area. From 1960 onwards, the very largest oil tankers from the Middle East were able to dock there and unload their cargoes.
Refinery / SNR is one of the world’s largest refineries. The refinery converts crude oil into other products. These might be end products such as gasoline (petrol), or semi-finished products which require further processing. There are two reasons why the Pernis refinery is special. It can process many different types of crude oil, light and very heavy types alike. And this makes it flexible and capable of capitalizing on market changes. In addition, the refinery is equipped to produce all kinds of special products. In terms of volume, for example, fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, LPG and fuel oil are the most important, followed by naphtha, the raw material for all kinds of petrochemical products. Other products are lubricants, steam, electricity and sulphur. Roughly 50% of the products are exported, mainly to Germany. The refinery processes approximately twenty million tonnes of crude oil each year. This oil is supplied via underground pipelines from Shell Europoort, where the huge tanks containing crude oil are located.
The crude oil refining process starts in these furnaces. Despite advanced automation, the eyes and ears of the process operator are still indispensable.
Refining processes Crude oil is a mixture of hundreds of different compounds. Its composition strongly depends on where in the world the oil was extracted, but crude oil can seldom be used as an end product. Several processes must...
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