The International Oil Companies: a Critical Appraisal of Their Rules and Operations.

Topics: Petroleum, Petroleum industry, OPEC Pages: 77 (24998 words) Published: June 27, 2012

THE INTERNATIONAL OIL COMPANIES:
A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THEIR RULES AND OPERATIONS

BEING AN ESSAY

BY

BABALOLA OLABISI ABIDEMI

LP/05/04/H/3153

PRESENTED TO THE

FACULTY OF LAW
OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY
ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE

NIGERIA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS OF LAW (LLM DEGREE)
2007

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this long essay was written by BABALOLA, OLABISI ABIDEMI under my supervision.

_______________________
Prof. A.O. Popoola
(Supervisor)

DEDICATION

This Essay is dedicated to the family of Prince Dejo Babalola. A family of motivators and achievers.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I give God, the Almighty all praise and glory for showing me the way to go in life. I know a truth, that I am not where I am by chance but by divine guidance. Thank you Lord.
I want to appreciate the good work and support of my father, Prince Dejo Babalola, my step mother, Mrs. Celine Babalola, all my brothers and sisters, nieces and nephews, particularly Uncle Leo Babalola, “my very best friend”. Thank you all.

My friends, Mrs. Kudirat Akano, Kehinde & Taiwo Daodu, Bukola Agboola, Wole Jayeola, Tope Oridudu, Bisi and Tunji Omidiran, Yusuff Babatunde, Tunde Igbalaye, Ifawole Adejumobi and a host of others too numerous to mention. Please, I will still need your support to wade through the waters of life.

Mr. Adisa Anbali, Mr. Adekilekun Tijani and Miss Olaide Babatunde you are such wonderful fellows, being with you while this program lasts is an experience I always want to re-live over and again. Also, Miss Funmi Mohmoh, thank you very much for your support and encouragement.

I will be eternally grateful to Prof. Ademola O. Popoola, the Dean, Faculty of Law, who breathed unto me “the breath of law” since my undergraduate days at O.A.U. I am fortunate at last, to have him supervise this project. His expertise and knowledge on various aspects of the law are both intimidating and interesting. Sir, may the Lord continually bless you and give you good health all the days of your life (Amen).

I am also grateful to all those who offered me love and encouragement during the course of this programme in one way or the other. May the good Lord bless you all (Amen).

TABLE OF STATUTES

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999)15 Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act, CAP 165 LFN 2004.92 Petroleum Act, CAP 350 LFN 2004. 76
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992) 43 United Nation Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) 43 United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change 43

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
APPEA-Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration
Association
API-American Petroleum Institute
BPD-Barrel Per Day
CFP-Company Hahaized Des Petroles
CERES-Coalition for Environmentally Responsible
Economies
CNL-Chevron Nigeria Limited
EIA-Environmental Impact Assessment
EIS-Environmental Impact Statement
EMS-Environmental Management System
EMAS-Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
EMAR-Eco-Management and Audit Regulation
EPE-Environmental Performance Statement Evaluation
FEPA-Federal Environmental Protection Agency
ICCA-International Council of Chemical Associations
ICC-International Chamber of Commerce
ISEA-Institute of Social and Ethical Accountability
ISO-International Standard Organization
JOA-Joint Operating Agreements
MOU-Memorandum of Understanding
MOSOP-Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
MNOC-Multi National Oil Company
MPNU-Mobile Producing Nigeria Unlimited
NAOC-Nigeria Agip Oil Company
NEMA-National Emergency Management Agency
NGO-Non-Governmental Organization
NLNG-Nigeria Liquefied National Gas
NNPC...

Bibliography: 3. Bates GM, Environmental Law in Australia (Butterworths, Sydney, 4th ed, 1992) at 179-182.
4. Wagner J, “Oil and Gas Operations and Environmental Law in Latin America” (1998) 16 JERL at 179.
5. Kimerling J, “The Environmental Audit of Texaco’s Amazon Oil Fields: Environmental Justice or Business as Usual?” (1994) Page 199 at 200.
6. Brow Weiss E, Environmental change and International Law: New Challenges and Dimensions in the Oil Industry (United Nations University Press, Tokyo, 1999), 34-35.
7. Pitt H and Groskaufmains K, “Minimizing Corporate Civil and Criminal Liability: A second Look at Corporate Codes of Conduct” (1990) 78 Georgetown LJ 1559.
8. Hepple B, “A, Race to the Top? International Investment Guidelines and Corporate Code of Conduct” (1999) 20 Comp Labor Law & Policy p 347.
9. Etikerentise; Nigerian Petroleum Law, (2004).
10. Butter and Binion; Environmental Law Simplified: A Practical Guide for oil and Gas Operation First Edition (1993).
11. M. M. Gidado; Petroleum Development Contracts with Multinational Oil firms: The Nigeria Experience, Maiduguri, (1990).
12. Ateseugba; Oil and Gas Law in Nigeria: Theory and Practice 2nd ed. (2004).
13. J. L. Williams; History and Analysis of Crude Oil Price, Second Edition (2005)
14
15. American Petroleum Institute, Onshore Oil and Gas Production Practices for Protection of the Environment (Washington DC, API, 2nd ed, 1995).
16. ARPEL, Code of Environmental Conduct, and Code of Environment Practice (1996 ed), UKOOA, Environmental Principles, www.ukooa.co.uk
17
18. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources: “Oil Exploration in the Tropics”: Guideline for Environmental Protection (Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1991).
20. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in Mangrove Areas, environmental assessment sourcebook (Washington DC, World Bank, 1991).
23. Confederation of British Industry, Introducing Environmental Reporting: Guidelines for Business (CBI, London 1994)
24
27. FEPA: Guidelines and standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria (1991).
28. A. O Sale; Can Law Protect the environment in Nigeria? MJFL, Vol.2 (1988).
29. Awake!; November 8, 2003, P. 12.
30. Human Right Watch; January 10, 2006, p. 17
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32. The Guardian Newspaper, 30th May, (2005).
34. The Punch Newspaper; Page 53, 30th May, (2006)
35
36. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999
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