1. Liberal Landslide and Liberal Reforms………………p3 2. The impact of the First World War…………………...p13 3. Interwar 1 – 1918-1929……………………………………p18 4. Interwar 2 – 1929-1940……………………………………p24 5. The impact of the Second World War……………….p26
6. ‘New Jerusalem’ Labour in Power 1945-1951…………p35 7. Writing Guide, Model answers, Question Bank……P41
Welcome to the Revision Guide to Britain 1906-1951. This booklet contains the essential content and detail you will need for your exam. Quick Introduction – what you need to know
This course in a nutshell –
Britain between 1906 and 1951 underwent many crises (Two world wars, General Strike, Great Depression, poverty and ill health) – how well did the Governments of the time respond to these? There were also lots of changes during this time (votes for women, people getting richer and poorer, Ireland, political change) – but just how much did Britain change or stay the same? EXAM STRUCTURE
The exam will always consist of three questions, of which you choose two. The two questions are broken down into a 12 mark and a 24 mark question. The 12 mark question asks you to explain an event or a process. The 24 mark question asks you to weigh up or evaluate how important or successful something was. These questions could be on anything in the course, so it is vital that you not only learn your content but practice applying it in questions. Use the structure and the question bank contained in this pack to start revising and practicing as soon as possible. You can always send questions, comments and practice answers to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Additionally you can tweet questions or comments to
Or visit Mr Rush at M312 (Humanities corridor)
Britain 1906-1951: Part One –
THE LIBERAL LANDSLIDE AND REFORMS
By 1906, the Conservative Party had been in power for over 20 years. In the 1906 election, however, the Liberal Party, led by Henry Campbell-Bannerman won a massive majority of over 125 seats.
What were the reasons for the Liberal Landslide?
The Boer War (1899-1902)
The Boer War had begun in 1899 with expectations of an early and easy victory. But in the first year the British Army suffered a series of heavy defeats. British casualties were heavy; 6% of the 450,000 men recruited. The war showed up the inadequacy of the army and the unhealthy state of many recruits; 37% failed the medical. The financial cost of the war was far greater than had originally been anticipated. The effect on national morale was even more serious: Britain had only just managed to defeat an army made up largely of farmers. This led to the debate over ‘National Efficiency’ and poverty.
The Lib-Lab Pact
The Conservatives failed to take action to tackle the effects of the Taff Vale judgment, so the Labour Party sought an alliance with the Liberal Party. The Lib-Lab Pact was formed in 1903. The Two parties agreed not to fight against each other in constituencies at the next general election. Labour would then support Liberal reforms which would reverse Taff Vale. The Liberals also offered the prospect of social reforms
The Education Act, 1902
Balfour’s Education Act (1902) brought all elementary schools under local council control. This was a much needed reform which was intended to establish parity between the schools across the country. But the Act angered Non-Conformists, whose schools were now largely controlled by Anglicans. They feared this would mean Anglican control of religious education. Some Non-Conformist schools refused to accept council supervision and went independent, but by 1906 most had been forced to give in because of lack of funds.
In 1903, a Commission reported on the use of coolie (mostly Chinese) labour in the British Empire. Coolies were indentured labourers who had been brought to the West Indies and South Africa. The Commission criticised...
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